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The Fourth Wave: Juvenile Justice Reforms for the Twenty-First Century

Published Dec 15, 2013, National Campaign to Reform State Juvenile Justice Systems

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The Fourth Wave: Juvenile Justice Reforms for the 21st Century takes a comprehensive look at the evolution of juvenile justice reform efforts over the past century and highlights the current wave of reform influencing policy changes that achieve better outcomes for children, their families, and their communities.

Across the U.S., juvenile justice reforms are gaining momentum: through Supreme Court decisions and state legislation, lawsuits and regulatory changes, state- and county-wide programs and innovative pilot projects. The case for a “fourth wave” lies not only in the number of reforms but in their staying power, and in their ability to reach practitioners and policymakers across the ideological spectrum.


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Models for Change was a juvenile justice systems reform initiative supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, website operated by Justice Policy Institute.